**NASSLLI18 Course : Beyond “knowing that”: a new generation of epistemic logics**

A slightly outdated survey: Yanjing Wang: Beyond Knowing That: A New Generation of Epistemic Logics, in Jaakko Hintikka on knowledge and game-theoretical* semantics*, Springer, 12: 499—533, 2018

In this course, I will survey the recent developments of this new research program on non-standard epistemic logics of know-wh and its various connections with existing logics and philosophical/AI/linguistic questions in the literature. Inspired by those logics, we will also discuss a very general and powerful framework based on a predicate language extended by new modalities which pack a quantifier and a modality together. We show that the resulting logic, though more expressive, shares many good properties of the basic propositional modal logic, such as the finite-tree-model property. This may also pave a new way to the discovery of new decidable fragments of first-order modal logic.

Check the website of the previous ESSLLI15 course for an (outdated) preview of the course.

Day 1 Introduction (Slides)

Main Ref (besides the “usual suspects”):

- Hintikka, J., Hintikka, M.: Reasoning about knowledge in philosophy: The paradigm of epistemic logic. In:
*The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic*. Volume 200 of Synthese Library. Springer Netherlands (1989) 17–35 - Yanjing Wang: Beyond knowing that: a new generation of epistemic logic (arXiv) in Jaakko Hintikka on knowledge and game theoretical semantics: 499-533. Springer (See the section about Hintikka’s contributions and the references therein)
- Gochet P, Gribomont P (2006) Epistemic logic. In: Gabbay DM, Woods J (eds) Handbook of the History of Logic, vol 7

**Other pointers:**

- D. Harrah: The logic of questions, Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Second Edition (D. Gabbay and F. Guenthner, eds.), vol. 8, Kluwer, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 2002, pp. 1–60.
- A. Wiśniewski: Semantics of questions, Handbook of Contemporary Semantics. Second Edition (S. Lappin and C. Fox, eds.), Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

**About embedded question, factivity: **

- P. Egré: Question-embedding and factivity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 77(1) (2008) 85– 125

**About Techniques and philosophy of Quantified modal (epistemic) logics:**

- Fitting, M., First-order intensional logic, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 127 (2004), pp. 171-193.
- Holliday, Wesley H. & Perry, John (2014). Roles, Rigidity, and Quantification in Epistemic Logic. In Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets (eds.), Trends in Logic, Outstanding Contributions: Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics. Springer 591-629.
- F. Belardinelli, A. Lomuscio, Quantified epistemic logics for reasoning about knowledge in multi-agent systems, Artificial Intelligence, Volume 173, Issues 9–10, June 2009, Pages 982-1013.
- G. Corsi, E. Orlandelli: Free Quantified Epistemic Logics. Studia Logica 101(6): 1159-1183 (2013)

**About concealed questions:**

- Maria Aloni and Floris Roelofsen. Interpreting Concealed Questions Linguistics and Philosophy 34(5), 443-478, 2011
- Maria Aloni. Quantification under Conceptual Covers. PhD thesis University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 2001.

**About Inquisitive semantics and Logic**

- See the website.

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**Day 2 Knowing whether (Slides, updated version)Main Ref:**

- Hart, S., Heifetz, A., & Samet, D.: Knowing whether, knowing that, and the cardinality of state spaces. Journal of Economic Theory, 70(1), 249–256. (1996)
- W. van der Hoek and A. Lomuscio: A logic for ignorance.
*Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science*, 85(2)(2):117-133, 2004. - J. Fan, Y. Wang and H. van Ditmarsch: Contingency and knowing whether, in
*Review of Symbolic Logic*8 (1):75-107 (2015), Cambridge University Press - J. Fan, Y. Wang and H. van Ditmarsch: Almost necessary, in
*Advances in Modal Logic*Vol. 10: 178-197 (2014), College Publications - J. Fan, H. van Ditmarsch: Neighborhood Contingency Logic. in Proceedings of ICLA 2015: 88-99
**There is a large body of research on contingency logics (too many to be listed here): see our****RSL****paper and Jie’s thesis for surveys and comparisons with earlier work.**- 如果你能读中文：范杰 《非偶然算子的逻辑研究》 博士论文 北京大学 2015 (Logical Studies for Non-contingency Operator PhD thesis of Jie Fan , in Chinese)

Other pointers:

- Ciardelli, I., Roelofsen, F.: Inquisitive dynamic epistemic logic. Synthese 192(6) (2015) 1643– 1687
- M. Aloni, P. Égré, Tikitu de Jager: Knowing whether A or B. Synthese 190(14): 2595-2621 (2013)

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Day 3: Logics of “knowing what” (slides, Updated Version)

Main Ref:

- Jan Plaza: Logics of public communications. In
*Proceedings of the 4th ISMIS*Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, pp. 201–216. (1989) - Xiwen Ma, Weide Guo: W-JS: A modal logic of knowledge in
*Proceedings of IJCAI83*关于马希文 - H. van Ditmarsch. Comments to ’logics of public communications’. Synthese, 158(2):181– 187, 2007.
- Yanjing Wang, Jie Fan: Knowing that, Knowing what, and Public Communication: Public Announcement Logic with Kv Operators, in
*Proceedings of IJCAI 2013*: 1147-1154. AAAI press. - Yanjing Wang, Jie Fan: Conditionally knowing what, in
*Advances in Modal Logic*Vol. 10: 569-587 (2014), College Publications - Tao Gu, Yanjing Wang: “Knowing value” logic as a normal modal logic. in Advances in Modal Logic Vol. 11:362-381, College Publications
- Jan van Eijck, Malvin Gattinger, Yanjing Wang: Knowing Values and Public Inspection. ICLA 2017: 77-90 Springer
- Alexandru Baltag: To know is to know the value of a variable.in
*Advances in Modal Logic*Vol. 11, College Publications - Yifeng Ding: The axiomatization and complexity of Knowing-What-Logic on model class K, Epistemic Logic with Functional Dependency Operator Studies in Logic
- Jixin Liu, Yifeng Ding, Yanjing Wang: Model Theoretical Aspects of Weakly Aggregative Modal Logic. J. Log. Lang. Inf. 31(2): 261-286 (2022)
- Yifeng Ding, Jixin Liu & Yanjing Wang: Someone knows that local reasoning on hypergraphs is a weakly aggregative modal logic Synthese 201 (2):1-27 (2023)（定义在hypergraph和neighborhood model上的逻辑）
- Bo Hong: Knowing the Value of a Predicate. LORI 2023: 149-166

**About proving incompleteness and ETL-like method for PAL:**- Y. Wang, Q. Cao: On axiomatizations of public announcement logic. Synthese 190 (1s): 103-134 (2013). Springer
**About various kinds of knowledge in security:**- F. Dechesne, Y. Wang: To know or not to know: epistemic approaches to security protocol verification. Synthese 177(S1): 51-76 (2010), Springer
**About knowing value and knowing whether in AI (epistemic) planning:**- R. Petrick, F. Bacchus: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Planning with Incomplete Information and Sensing. AIPS 2002: 212-222

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**Day 4: Logics of “knowing how” (slides, Updated Version)Main Ref：**

- Gochet, P.: An open problem in the logic of knowing how. In Hintikka, J., ed.: Open Problems in Epistemology. The Philosophical Society of Finland (2013)
- Ågotnes, T., Goranko, V., Jamroga, W., Wooldridge, M.: Knowledge and ability. In van Ditmarsch, H., Halpern, J., van der Hoek, W., Kooi, B., eds.: Handbook of Epistemic Logic. College Publications (2015) 543–589
- Yanjing Wang: A logic of knowing how, in
*Proceedings of LORI2015*, Springer; extended journal versionat Synthese - Raul Fervari, Andreas Herzig, Yanjun Li, Yanjing Wang: Strategically knowing how. IJCAI 2017: 1031-1038
- Yanjun Li, Yanjing Wang: Achieving While Maintaining: A Logic of Knowing How with Intermediate Constraints. ICLA 2017: 154-167
- Yanjun Li: Stopping Means Achieving: A Weaker Logic of Knowing How, Studies in Logic 9 (4): 34-54 2016
- Yanjun Li: Knowing what to do A logical approach to planning and knowing how. PhD Thesis Groningen University 2017
- Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao: Together We Know How to Achieve: An Epistemic Logic of Know-How (Extended Abstract). TARK 2017: 441-453
- Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao: Strategic Coalitions With Perfect Recall. AAAI 2018
- Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao: Coalition Power in Epistemic Transition Systems. AAMAS 2017: 723-731
- Jan M. Broersen: Making a Start with the stit Logic Analysis of Intentional Action. J Philos Logic (2011) 40:499–530
- Yanjing Wang: Representing Imperfect Information of Procedures with Hyper Models. in
*Proceedings of ICLA 2015*: 218-231. Springer. - Quan Yu, Yanjun Li, Yanjing Wang: A Dynamic Epistemic Framework for Conformant Planning, in
*Proceedings of TARK2015*: 249-259, ACM Digital Library - Tszyuen Lau and Yanjing Wang: Knowing your ability The Philosophical Forum 47(3-4)415-423, Wiley-Blackwell
- About discussion between intellectualism and anti-intellectualism see this Philpaper page (edited by Bengson)
- Yanjun Li, Yanjing Wang: Planning-based knowing how: a unified approach in
*Artificial Intelligence*, Volume 296, 2021, 103487

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**Day 5: A general framework (slides, Updated Version)Main Ref:**

- Yanjing Wang: A new modal framework for epistemic logic in Proceedings of 16th conference on Theoretical Aspects of Rationality and Knowledge (TARK2017): 515-534
- Anantha Padmanabha, R. Ramanujam, Yanjing Wang: Bundled fragments of first-order modal logic: (un)decidability FSTTCS2018：
*LIPIcs 112: 43:1-43:20* - Mo Liu, Anantha Padmanabha, R Ramanujam, Yanjing Wang. Are bundles good deals for first-order modal logic? Information and Computation 293: 105062 (2023)
- Wolter, F., & Zakharyaschev, M. (2001). Decidable Fragments of First-Order Modal Logics. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 66(3), 1415–1438.
- Xun Wang. Completeness theorems for ∃□-bundled fragment of first-order modal logic. Synthese 201 (4):1-23 (2023)
- 王勋：一阶模态逻辑的 $\exists \Box$-打包片段研究：公理化及模型论. 北京大学博士论文. 2021
- 杨远哲: 一阶模态逻辑 $\Box\exists$-打包片段的一些公理化结果. 北京大学本科毕业论文 2023
- Haoyu Wang, Yanjing Wang, Yunsong Wang: Inquisitive logic as an epistemic logic of knowing how. Ann. Pure Appl. Log. 173(10): 103145 (2022)
- Haoyu Wang, Yanjing Wang, Yunsong Wang: An Epistemic Interpretation of Tensor Disjunction. AiML 2022: 719-739

**Extras: **

A logic of knowing why (Slides), Knowing who (Slides)

Ref:

- Chao Xu, Yanjing Wang, Thomas Studer: A Logic of Knowing Why, Synthese 2021
- Hintikka, J., & Halonen, I. (1995). Semantics and Pragmatics for Why-Questions. The Journal of Philosophy, 92(12), 636–657. 看 Hintikka 利用插值定理讨论 question why 的结果
- Artemov, S. (2008). The Logic of Justification. Review of Symbolic Logic.
- Yanjing Wang, Yu Wei, Jeremy Seligman (2022): Quantifier-free epistemic term-modal logic with assignment operator in Annals of Pure and Applied Logic. 用 term modality 和 assignment operator 处理 de re / de dicto 的 reading, AiML 18 会议论文的期刊版
- Michael Cohen, Wen Tang, Yanjing Wang: De Re Updates. TARK 2021: 103-117 assignments 处理de re updates 和 de re knowledge。
- Maria Aloni: Knowing-who in quantified epistemic logic, Jaakko Hintikka on Knowledge and Game-Theoretical Semantics, Springer 2108
- Maria Aloni. Quantification under Conceptual Covers. PhD thesis University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 2001. 用技术方式处理不同的 reading
- Sophia Epstein, Pavel Naumov: Epistemic Logic of Know-Who. AAAI 2021: 11479-11486 一个简单的know who logic 使用Grove 的 “egocentric” framework
- Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern: Naming and Identity in Epistemic Logics Part I: The Propositional Case. J. Log. Comput. 3(4): 345-378 (1993)
- Fitting, M., Thalmann, L., & Voronkov, A. (2001). Term-modal logics. Studia Logica, 69(1), 133–169.
- Barteld Kooi (2007): Dynamic term modal logic. LORI 2007
- Lars Thalmann (2000): Term-Modal Logic and Quantifier-free Dynamic Logic. PhD Thesis, Uppsala University
- Orlandelli, E., & Corsi, G. (2018). Decidable Term-Modal Logics (pp. 147–162). Springer
- Nicholas Pischke: Dynamic extensions for the logic of knowing why with public announcements of formulas