Aristotle’s discussions on modal syllogistic have often been viewed as error-prone and have garnered significant attention in the literature due to historical interests. However, from a contemporary standpoint, they also introduced natural fragments of first-order modal logic, warranting a comprehensive technical analysis. In this paper, drawing inspiration from the natural logic program, we propose and examine several variants of modal syllogistic within the epistemic context, thereby coining the term “epistemic syllogistic.” Specifically, we concentrate on the de re interpretation of epistemic syllogisms containing non-trivial yet natural expressions such as “all things known to be A are also known to be not B.” We explore the epistemic apodeictic syllogistic and its extensions, which accommodate more complex terms. Our main contributions include several axiomatizations of these logics, with completeness proofs that may be of independent interest.
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