Abstract: In this paper, we propose a logical framework extending the standard epistemic logic with a new knowledge operator $\G_i$ which captures the knowledge about (physically) necessary facts, e.g., scientific knowledge. Semantically, the truth of $\G_i\phi$ depends on not only the epistemically indistinguishable worlds from the current real world but also the relevant (physically) possible worlds which are clearly distinguishable. Essentially, $\G_i$ is a bundle of the standard epistemic modality and a necessity-like modality. We axiomatize the corresponding epistemic logic completely in single- and multi-agent cases with interesting interaction axioms between the two epistemic operators.
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